Find below a complete list of publications. For the KEY subset of empirical or theoretical papers, click HERE.

Articles in Peer-Reviewed Journals

In review or revision

98) Dunning, L.T., M.R. Lundgren, J.J. Moreno Villena, M. Namaganda, E.J. Edwards, P. Nosil, C.P. Osborne, and P-A. Christin. Reticulate evolution facilitated the recurrent emergence of C4 photosynthesis within a genus. submitted.

97) Ragland, G., P. Meyers, M. Doellman, G. Hood, S. Egan, T. Powell, D. Hahn, P. Nosil, and J.L. Feder. A test of genomic modularity among life history adaptations promoting speciation-with-gene-flow. in revision.


96) Rüdiger R.*, M. Muschick*, D. Lindtke*, R. Villoutreix*, A.A. Comeault, T.E. Farkas, K. Lucek, E. Hellen, V. Soria-Carrasco, S.R. Dennis, C.F. de Carvalho, R.J. Safran, C.P. Sandoval, J.L. Feder, R. Gries, B.J. Crespi, G. Gries, Z. Gompert*, and P. Nosil. 2017. Transitions between phases of genomic differentiation during stick-insect speciation. Nature Ecology and Evolution in press.   online early PDF

95) Nosil, P., J. Feder, S.M. Flaxman, and Z. Gompert. 2017. Tipping points in the dynamics of speciation. Nature Ecology and Evolution 1: 0001(doi:10.1038/s41559-016-0001).   PDF

94) Gompert, Z., S.P. Egan, R. Barrett, Jeffrey L. Feder, and P. Nosil. 2017. Multi-locus approaches for the measurement of selection on correlated genetic loci. Molecular Ecology 26: 365–382.   PDF


93) Comeault, A.A., C.F. de Carvalho, S. Dennis, V. Soria-Carrasco, and P. Nosil. 2016. Color phenotypes are under similar genetic control in two distantly related species of Timema stick insect. Evolution 70: 1283-1296.   PDF

92) Farkas, T.E., T. Mononen, A.A. Comeault, and P. Nosil. 2016. Observational evidence that maladaptive gene flow reduces patch occupancy in a wild insect metapopulation. Evolution 70: 2879-2888.   PDF

91) Olofsson, J., M. Bianconi, G. Besnard, L. Dunning, M. Lundgren, H. Holota, M. Vorontsova, P. Nosil, C. Osborne, and P-A. Christin. 2016. Genome biogeography reveals the intraspecific spread of adaptive mutations for a complex trait. Molecular Ecology 25: 6107–6123.   PDF

90) Safran R.J., E.S.C. Scordato, M.R. Wilkins, J.K. Hubbard, B.R. Jenkins, T. Albrecht, S.M. Flaxman, H. Karaardıç, Y. Vortman, A. Lotem, P. Nosil, P. Pap, S. Shen, S.-F. Chan, T. Parchman, and N.C. Kane. 2016. Genome-wide differentiation in closely related populations: the roles of selection and geographic isolation. Molecular Ecology 25: 3865-3883.   PDF   Cover photo

89) Riesch, R., M. Tobler, H. Lerp, J. Jourdan, T. Doumas, P. Nosil, R.B. Langerhans, and M. Plath. 2016. Extremophile Gambusia: multivariate insights into the speciation continuum along a replicated toxicity gradient. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16: 136.   PDF


88) Comeault, A.A., S.M. Flaxman, R. Riesch, E. Curran, V. Soria-Carrasco, Z. Gompert, T.E. Farkas, M. Muschick, T.L. Parchman, T. Schwander, J. Slate, and P. Nosil. 2015. Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect. Current Biology 25: 1975–1981.   PDF   F1000 Evaluation   Dispatch in Current Biology

87) Egan, S.P., G. Ragland, L. Assour, T.H.Q. Powell, G.R. Hood, S. Emrich, P. Nosil, and J.L. Feder. 2015. Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flow. Ecology Letters 18: 817-825.   PDF   F1000 evaluation

86) Nosil, P. 2015. Evolution: sex limits adaptation. Current Biology 25: R613-R616 (Dispatch article).   PDF

85) Farkas, T.E., A. Hendry, P. Nosil, and A. Beckerman. 2015. How maladaptation can structure biodiversity: Eco-evolutionary island biogeography. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30: 154-160.   PDF


84) Soria-Carrasco, V., Z. Gompert, A.A. Comeault, T.E. Farkas, T.L. Parchman, J.S. Johnson, C.A. Buerkle, J.L. Feder, J. Bast, T. Schwander, S.P. Egan, B.J. Crespi, and P. Nosil. 2014. Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection’s role in parallel speciation. Science 344: 738-742.   PDF   supplementary materials   F1000 evaluations   Coverage in Science by Liz Pennisi

Cover Shot

83) Flaxman, S.M., A. Wacholder, J.L. Feder, and P. Nosil. 2014. Theoretical models of the influence of genomic architecture on the dynamics of speciation. Molecular Ecology 23: 4074-4088.   PDF   ‘News and Views’ coverage

82) Gompert, Z.,­­ A.A. Comeault, T.E. Farkas, J.L. Feder, T.L. Parchman, C.A. Buerkle, and P. Nosil. 2014. Experimental evidence for ecological selection on genome variation in the wild. Ecology Letters 17: 369-379.   PDF   supplementary materials   F1000 evaluation

81) Feder, J.L., P. Nosil, and S.M. Flaxman. 2014. Assessing when chromosomal rearrangements affect the dynamics of speciation: implications from computer simulations. Frontiers in Genetics 5: 295.   PDF

80) Muschick, M., P. Nosil, M. Roesti, M.T. Dittmann, L. Harmon, and W. Salzburger. 2014. Testing the stage model in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in East African Lake Tanganyika. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 281: 20140605.   PDF

79) Feder, J.L., P. Nosil, A. Wacholder, S.P. Egan, S.H. Berlocher, and S.M. Flaxman. 2014. Genome wide congealing and rapid transitions across the speciation continuum during speciation with gene flow. Journal of Heredity 105: 810-820.   PDF

78) Comeault, A.A., V. Soria-Carrasco, Z. Gompert,T.E. Farkas, C.A. Buerkle, T.L. Parchman, and P. Nosil. 2014. Genome-wide association mapping of phenotypic traits subject to a range of intensities of natural selection in Timema cristinae. American Naturalist 183: 711-727.    PDF


77) Feder, J.L., S. Flaxman, S.P. Egan, A.A. Comeault, and P. Nosil. 2013. Geographic mode of speciation and genomic divergence. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 44: 73-97.   PDF  

76) Farkas, T.E., T. Mononen, A.A. Comeault, I. Hanksi, and P. Nosil. 2013. Evolution of camouflage drives rapid ecological change within an insect community. Current Biology 23: 1835-1843.   PDF   Dispatch in Current Biology   Article in National Geographic

75) Flaxman, S.M., J.L. Feder, and P. Nosil. 2013. Genetic hitchhiking and the dynamic build up of genomic divergence during speciation with gene flow. Evolution 67: 2577-2591.   PDF   F1000 evaluation

74) Powell, T.H.Q., G.R. Hood, M.O. Murphy, J.S. Heilveil, S.H. Berlocher, P. Nosil, and J.L. Feder. 2013. Genetic divergence along the speciation continuum: the transition from host race to species in Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Evolution 67: 2561-2576.   PDF

73) Nosil, P., R. Riesch, and M. Muschick. 2013. Climate affects host-plant but not mating preferences of Timema cristinae stick-insect populations. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15: 689-704.   PDF

72) Nosil, P., and J.L. Feder. 2013. Genome evolution and speciation: towards quantitative descriptions of pattern and process. Evolution 67: 2461-2467.   PDF

71) Schwander, T., D. Arbuthnott, G. Gries, R. Gries, P. Nosil, and B.J. Crespi. 2013. Mate discrimination, hydrocarbon divergence and speciation in Timema stick insects. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13: 151.   PDF

70) Roy, D., O. Seehausen, and P. Nosil. 2013. Sexual dimorphism dominates divergent host use in stick insect trophic morphology. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:135.   PDF

69) Nosil, P. 2013. Degree of sympatry affects reinforcement in Drosophila. Evolution 67: 868-872.   PDF

68) Crespi, B.J., and P. Nosil. 2013. Conflictual speciation: species formation via intragenomic conflict. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28: 48-57.   PDF   F1000 evaluation

67) Feder, J.L., S.P. Egan, S.M. Flaxman, and P. Nosil. 2013. Hybridization and the build up of genomic divergence during speciation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26: 261-266.   PDF

66) Reimchen, T.E., C. Bergstrom, and P. Nosil. 2013. Natural selection and the adaptive radiation of Haida Gwaii stickleback. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15: 241-269.   PDF

65) Hendry, A.P., J. Boughman, B. Matthews, C. Peichel, and P. Nosil. 2013. Research on stickleback: the now and the next. Evolutionary Ecology Research 15: 111-141.   PDF


64) Flaxman, S.M., J.L. Feder, and P. Nosil. 2012. Spatially explicit models of divergence and genome hitchhiking. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25: 2633-2650.   PDF

63) Nosil, P., and P.A. Hohenlohe. 2012. Dimensionality of sexual isolation during reinforcement and ecological speciation in Timema cristinae stick insects. Evolutionary Ecology Research 14: 467–485.   PDF

62) Nosil­­, P.,  Z. Gompert,T. Farkas, A. Comeault, J.L. Feder, C.A. Buerkle, and T.L. Parchman. 2012. Genomic consequences of multiple speciation processes in a stick insect. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 279: 5058-5065.   PDF   supplementary materials   Editor’s choice in Science: Ecology splits genomes

61) Feder, J.L., S.P. Egan, and P. Nosil. 2012. The genomics of speciation-with-gene-flow. Trends in Genetics 28: 342-350.   PDF

60) Nosil­­, P., T.L. Parchman, J.L. Feder, and Z. Gompert. 2012. Do highly divergent loci reside in gene regions affecting reproductive isolation? A test using next-generation sequence data in Timema stick insects. BMC Evolutionary Biology 12: 164.   PDF

59) Comeault, A., M. Sommers, T. Schwander, C.A. Buerkle, T. Farkas, P. Nosil, and T. Parchman. 2012. De novo characterization of the transcriptome of Timema cristinae facilitates marker discovery and inference of genetic divergence. Molecular Ecology Resources 12: 549-61.   PDF

58) Nosil, P., and J.L. Feder. 2012. Genomic divergence: causes and consequences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 367: 332-342.   PDF

57) Feder, J.L., R. Gejji, S. Yeaman, and P. Nosil. 2012. Establishment of new mutations under divergence and genome hitchhiking. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 367: 461-474.   PDF   supplementary materials

56) Nosil, P., and J.L. Feder. 2012. Widespread yet heterogeneous genomic divergence. Molecular Ecology 21: 2829–2832 (News and Views).   PDF

55) Servedio, M.R., G.S. Van Doorn, M. Kopp, A.M. Frame, and P. Nosil. 2012. Magic traits, pleiotropy, and effect sizes: a response to Haller et al. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 27: 5-6.   PDF


54) Funk, D.J., S.P. Egan, and P. Nosil. 2011. ‘Isolation-by-Adaptation’ in Neochlamisus leaf beetles: host-related selection promotes neutral genomic divergence. Molecular Ecology 20: 4671-4682.   PDF   supplementary materials

53) Agrawal, A.F., J.L. Feder, and P. Nosil. 2011. Ecological divergence and the origins of intrinsic postmating isolation with gene flow. International Journal of Ecology 2011: 1-15.   PDF   supplementary materials

52) Feder, J.L., R. Gejii, T.H.Q. Powell, and P. Nosil. 2011. Adaptive chromosomal divergence driven by mixed geographic mode of evolution. Evolution 65: 2157-2170.   PDF   supplementary materials

51) Nosil, P., and D. Schluter. 2011. The genes underlying the process of speciation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 160-167.   PDF   supplementary materials

50) Nosil, P., and S. Flaxman. 2011. Conditions for mutation-order speciation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 278: 399-407.   PDF   supplementary materials

49) Servedio, M.R., G.S. Van Doorn, M. Kopp, A.M. Frame, and P. Nosil. 2011. Magic traits in speciation: ‘magic’ but not rare? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 389-397.   PDF


48) Michel, A.P., S. Sim, T. Powell, P. Nosil, and J.L. Feder. 2010. Widespread genomic divergence during sympatric speciation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 9724-9729.   PDF   supplementary materials   News and Views in Nature: Expanding islands of speciation   Editor’s choice in Science: Not continental drift

47) Feder, J.L., and P. Nosil. 2010. The efficacy of divergence hitchhiking in generating genomic islands during ecological speciation. Evolution 64: 1729-1747.   PDF

46) Pavey, S., H. Collin, P. Nosil, and S. Rogers. 2010. The role of gene expression in ecological speciation. Year in Evolutionary Biology 1206: 110-129.   PDF

45) Matsubayashi, K.W., I. Oshima, and P. Nosil. 2010. Ecological speciation in phytophagous insects. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 134: 1-27.   PDF


44) Feder, J.L., and P. Nosil. 2009. Chromosomal inversions and species differences: when are genes affecting adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation expected to reside within inversions? Evolution 63: 3061-3075.   PDF   supplementary materials

43) Mallet, J., A. Meyer, P. Nosil, and J.L. Feder. 2009. Space, sympatry, and speciation. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22: 2332-2341.   PDF   reply from Fitzpatrick et al.

42) Nosil, P. 2009. Adaptive population divergence in cryptic color-pattern following a reduction in gene flow. Evolution 63: 1902-1912.   PDF   Editor’s choice in Science

41) Nosil, P., L. Harmon, and O. Seehausen. 2009. Ecological explanations for (incomplete) speciation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24: 145-156.   PDF

40) Nosil, P., D.J. Funk, and D. Ortiz-Barrientos. 2009. Divergent selection and heterogeneous genomic divergence. Molecular Ecology 18: 375-402.   PDF   supplementary materials

39) Ortiz-Barrientos, D., Grealy, A., and P. Nosil. 2009.The genetics and ecology of reinforcement: implications for the evolution of prezygotic isolation in sympatry and beyond. Year in Evolutionary Biology 1168: 156-182.   PDF


38) Nosil, P., S.P. Egan, and D.J. Funk. 2008. Heterogeneous genomic differentiation between walking-stick ecotypes: ‘isolation by adaptation’ and multiple roles for divergent selection. Evolution 62: 316-336.   PDF   supplementary materials

37) Nosil, P. 2008. Speciation with gene flow may be common. Molecular Ecology 17: 2103-2106 (News and Views).   PDF

36) Nosil, P. 2008. Ernst Mayr and the integration of geographic and ecological factors in speciation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 95: 26-26.   PDF

35) Nosil, P., and R. Yukilevich. 2008. Mechanisms of reinforcement in simulated and natural polymorphic populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 95: 305-319.   PDF

34) Nosil, P., and C.P. Sandoval. 2008. Ecological niche dimensionality and the evolutionary diversification of stick insects. PLoS ONE 3: e1907.   PDF

33) Egan, S.P., P. Nosil, and D.J. Funk. 2008. Selection and genomic differentiation during ecological speciation: isolating the contributions of host-association via a comparative genome scan of Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles. Evolution 62: 1162-1181.   PDF


32) Bolnick, D., and P. Nosil. 2007. Natural selection in populations subject to a migration load. Evolution 61: 2229-2243.   PDF   supplementary materials

31) Nosil, P. 2007. Divergent host-plant adaptation and reproductive isolation between ecotypes of Timema cristinae. American Naturalist 169: 151-162.   PDF

30) Nosil, P., B.J. Crespi, R. Gries, and G. Gries. 2007. Natural selection and divergence in mate preference during speciation. Genetica 129: 309-327.   PDF

29) Hendry, A.P., P. Nosil, and L. Rieseberg. 2007. The speed of ecological speciation. Functional Ecology 21: 455-464.   PDF


28) Nosil, P., and B.J. Crespi. 2006. Experimental evidence that predation promotes divergence during adaptive radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 9090-9095.   PDF   supplementary materials

27) Nosil, P., B.J. Crespi, C.P. Sandoval, and M. Kirkpatrick. 2006. Migration and the genetic covariance between habitat preference and performance. American Naturalist 167: E66-E78.   PDF

26) Nosil, P., and B.J. Crespi. 2006. Ecological divergence promotes the evolution of cryptic reproductive isolation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 273: 991-997.   PDF

25) Nosil, P.,B.J. Crespi, and C.P. Sandoval. 2006. The evolution of host preference in allopatric versus parapatric populations of Timema cristinae walking-sticks. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 929-942.   PDF

24) Funk, D.J., P. Nosil, and B. Etges. 2006. Ecological divergence exhibits consistently positive associations with reproductive isolation across disparate taxa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 3209-3213.   PDF   supplementary materials

23) Nosil, P. 2006. Frequency-dependent selection: when being different makes you not stand out. Current Biology 16: 806-808 (Dispatch article).   PDF

22) Reimchen, T.E., and P. Nosil. 2006. Replicated ecological landscapes and the evolution of morphological diversity among Gasterosteus populations from an archipelago on the west coast of Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84: 643-654.   PDF


21) Nosil, P., and A. Mooers. 2005. Testing hypotheses about ecological specialization using phylogenetic trees. Evolution 59: 2256-2263.   PDF

20) Sandoval, C.P., and P. Nosil. 2005. Counteracting selective regimes and host preference evolution in ecotypes of two species of walking-sticks. Evolution 59: 2405-2413.   PDF

19) Nosil, P., and T.E. Reimchen. 2005. Ecological opportunity and levels of morphological variance within freshwater stickleback populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society  86: 297-308.   PDF

18) Nosil, P., T. Vines, and D.J. Funk. 2005. Perspective: Reproductive isolation caused by natural selection against immigrants from divergent habitats. Evolution 59: 705-719.   PDF   supplementary materials

17) Rundle, H., and P. Nosil. 2005. Ecological speciation. Ecology Letters 8: 336-352.   PDF

16) Nosil, P. 2005. The role of selection and gene flow in the evolution of sexual isolation in Timema stick-insects and other Orthopteroids. Journal of Orthopteroid Research 14: 247-253.   PDF

15) Nosil, P. 2005. Darwinian speciation in the 21st century. Ecoscience 12: 434-435 (book review of Adaptive Speciation by Dieckmann, U., M. Doebeli, J.AJ. Metz, and D. Tautz).   PDF


14) Nosil, P. 2004. Reproductive isolation caused by visual predation on migrants between divergent environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 271: 1521-1528.   PDF

13) Reimchen, T.E., and P. Nosil. 2004. Variable predation regimes predict the evolution of sexual dimorphism in a population of threespine stickleback. Evolution 58: 1274-1281.   PDF

12) Nosil, P., and B.J. Crespi. 2004. Does gene flow constrain trait divergence or vice-versa? A test using ecomorphology and sexual isolation in Timema cristinae walking-sticks. Evolution 58: 101-112.   PDF


11) Nosil, P., B.J. Crespi, and C.P. Sandoval. 2003. Reproductive isolation driven by the combined effects of ecological adaptation and reinforcement. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 270: 1911-1918.    PDF


10) Nosil, P., B.J. Crespi, and C.P. Sandoval. 2002. Host-plant adaptation drives the parallel evolution of reproductive isolation. Nature 417: 440-443.   PDF

9) Nosil, P. 2002. Transition rates between specialization and generalization in phytophagous insects. Evolution 56: 1701-1706.   PDF

8) Reimchen, T.E., and P. Nosil. 2002. Temporal variation in divergent selection on spine number in threespine stickleback. Evolution 56: 2472-2483.   PDF

7) Nosil, P. 2002. Food fights in house crickets, Acheta domesticus, and the effects of body size and hunger level. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80: 409-417.   PDF


6) Nosil, P., and T.E. Reimchen. 2001. Tarsal asymmetry, nutritional condition and survival in water boatmen (Callicorixa vulnerata). Evolution 55: 712-720.   PDF

5) Reimchen, T.E., and P. Nosil. 2001. Ecological causes of sex-biased parasitism in three-spined stickleback. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 73: 51-63.   PDF

4) Nosil, P. 2001. Tarsal asymmetry, trait size and extreme phenotypes in a sexually size-dimorphic water boatman (Callicorixa vulnerata). Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 1114-1119.   PDF

3) Reimchen, T.E., and P. Nosil. 2001. Dietary differences between symmetrical and asymmetrical pelvic phenotypes in stickleback. Canadian Journal of Zoology  79: 533-539.   PDF

2) Nosil, P. 2001. Sexual size dimorphism in a natural population of Callicorixa vulnerata (Hemiptera: Corixidae). Canadian Entomologist 33: 311-313.   PDF

1) Reimchen, T.E., and P. Nosil. 2001. Lateral plate asymmetry, diet and parasitism in threespine stickleback. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14: 632-645.   PDF

Books and Edited Volumes

 Nosil, P. 2012. Ecological speciation. Oxford University Press, Oxford. For info on the book, click HERE.

For the book review in Trends in Ecology and Evolution, click HERE. For the book review in Current Biology, click HERE.

Nosil, P. and J.L. Feder. 2012. Genomic divergence during speciation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B (theme issue). For info on the theme issue, click HERE

Nosil, P. and J.L. Feder. 2013. Genome evolution and speciation. Evolution (special section). For the the special section, click HERE

Book chapters, encyclopedia articles, and corrigendum

Nosil, P., A.A. Comeault, and T.E. Farkas. 2016. Ecological speciation and its consequences. pp. 487-493. In ‘Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology’ (R. Kliman, head editor, D. Ortiz-Barrientos, section editor), Elsevier.

Feder, J.L., S.P. Egan, and P. Nosil. 2013. Speciation and genome evolution. pp. 549-558. In ‘Princeton Guide to Evolution’ (J. Losos, chief editor, D. Schluter, subject editor), Princeton University Press.

Nosil, P. 2013. Reproductive isolation. pp. 173-176. In Encylopedia of Genetics, 2nd edition. (S. Maloy, K. Hughes, editors), Elsevier.

Safran, R.L., and P. Nosil. 2012. Speciation: the origin of new species. Nature Education Knowledge. 3: 17.

Nosil, P., and A. Buerkle. 2010. Population genomics. Nature Education Knowledge 1: 8.

Niemiller M.L, P. Nosil, and B.M. Fitzpatrick. 2010. Corrigendum: Recent divergence-with-gene-flow in Tennessee cave salamanders (Plethodontidae: Gyrinophilus) inferred from gene genealogies. Molecular Ecology 19: 1513-1514.   PDF

Nosil, P. 2009. Habitat preference and the formation of new species. pp. 473-477. In ‘Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology’ (C. Fox, D.F. Westneat, editors), Oxford University Press.

Nosil, P., and H.D. Rundle. 2009. Ecological speciation: natural selection and the formation of new species. pp. 134-142. In ‘Princeton Guide to Ecology’ (S. Levin, editor), Princeton University Press.

Nosil, P., and L. Harmon. 2009. Niche dimensionality and ecological speciation. pp. 127–154. In ‘Speciation and patterns of diversity’ (R. Butlin, J. Bridle, D. Schluter, eds.) Cambridge University Press.

Funk, D.J., and P. Nosil. 2007. Comparative analyses and ecological speciation in herbivorous insects. pp. 117-135 In ‘Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation: the Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects‘ (K. Tilmon, ed.) California University Press.

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